Organic Waste "Composting"

Pencacahan SampahWaste (refuse) is part of something that is not used, disliked or something to be discarded, which is generally derived from activities performed by humans (including industrial activity), but not the biological (due to human waste is not included therein) and generally solid (Anwar, 1990). Waste sources can vary, including: from households, markets, shops, offices, public buildings, industry, and roads.

Development and rapid population growth in urban areas resulted in residential areas increasingly broad and solid. Increased human activity, further causes the increase of garbage. Factors affecting the amount of trash in addition to residents

activity include: the number or density of population, waste management systems, geography, season and time, the habit of the population, technological and socio-economic level (MOH., 1987).

Waste processing garbage (organic) biological and takes place in aerobic and anaerobic atmosphere. Decomposition of waste with the help of bacteria, obtained compost or humus. Anaerobic decomposition is running very slow and smelly, but it runs relatively fast aerobic decomposition of anaerobic decomposition and less smelly.

Based on their chemical composition, the garbage is divided into organic and inorganic waste. Research on solid waste in Indonesia showed that 80% of the organic waste, and an estimated 78% of the waste can be reused. According Murtadho and Said (1987), organic waste to differentiate into perishable organic waste (eg, food scraps, vegetable and fruit peels) and organic waste are not easily rot (eg, plastic and paper). Activities or waste disposal activity is an activity that is without end. Therefore we need a good waste management system. Meanwhile, urban waste management difficulties in terms of waste collection and efforts to get a place or land that is completely secure (Soeryani et al, 1997). Then the waste management can be performed preventive, which utilizes one such effort garbage composting (Damanhuri, 1988).


Understanding Compost

Compost is the result revamp organic matter by microbes with the end result in the form of compost that has a C / N ratio is low. The ideal material for composting has a C / N ratio of about 30, while the compost produced has a ratio C / N <20. Organic materials have C / N ratio is much higher in the top 30 will terombak in a long time, otherwise if the ratio too low there will be loss of N due to evaporate during the reform process underway. The compost produced by microbial fermentation using effective technology known as Bokashi. In this way the composting process may take more time than the conventional method.

Cara Membuat Pupuk KomposComposting is basically an attempt to enable the microbial activity in order to accelerate the process of decomposition of organic matter. What is meant here microbial bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. Organic matter here is a raw material for composting is straw, municipal waste, agricultural waste, animal waste / livestock and so on. How to compost varies: the state of the place of manufacture, the culture, the desired quality, the amount of compost needed, kind of material available and the tastes of the maker.


It should be noted in the composting process is the compost pile moisture. Activities and microbial life is strongly influenced by moisture enough, not too dry or wet or flooded.

Aerated Pile

Aeration is closely related to moisture. If too anaerobic microbes that live only anaerobic microbial alone, aerobic microbial dead or stunted. Whereas if too aerobic free air into the pile composted material generally causes loss of nitrogen is relatively large because vaporized form of NH3. The temperature must be maintained not too high (up to 60 degrees Celsius). During composting always arise heat so that the organic material is composted temparaturnya rise; temperatures often reach 60 degrees Celsius. At this temperature or a little dead microbes living. To lower temperatures will generally performed reversal compost heap. Most of the composting process produces organic acids, causing the pH drops. Reversal pile having an impact neutralizing acidity.
Neutralization of acidity is often done by adding liming materials eg lime, dolomite or ash. Giving not only neutralize ash but also adds nutrients Ca, K and Mg in compost made. Sometimes to speed up and improve the quality of the compost, pile fertilizers containing nutrients, especially P. The development of rapid microbial need other nutrients including P. P is provided for microbial fact that development and activities to be faster. The provision of these nutrients also improve the quality of the compost produced as P content in the compost is higher than usual, because of the residue P difficult washed and do not evaporate.


The Benefits of Compost

Manfaat Pupuk KomposBasically compost can improve soil fertility and physical chemistry which will further increase crop production. In horticultural crops (fruits, ornamental plants, and vegetables) or the perishable nature of plants is almost impossible grown without compost. Likewise, in the plantations, the use of compost is proven to increase crop production. In the forestry sector, the plants will grow better with compost. Meanwhile, the fisheries, the age and the maintenance of reduced fish ponds, maintenance age 7 months to 5 - 6 months.

Compost makes fruits and vegetables more palatable, more fragrant and more massive. This has encouraged the development of organic crops, in addition to a healthier and safer because they do not use pesticides and chemical fertilizers tastes better, more brittle, and fragrant. The use of compost as organic fertilizer alone will produce limited productivity. The use of artificial fertilizers alone (urea, SP, MOP, NPK) will also provide a limited productivity. However, if both are used complementary, there will be a positive synergy. Productivity is much higher than in the use of these types of fertilizer respectively. In addition, the leachate is considered pollute wells in the landfill can be used as liquid fertilizer or treated before it flows into the common channel. Another advantage with the removal of the landfill (landfill) and replaced with TPK (where composting) aka composting plant, land for this trash does not move, just one place for sustainable activities.

How Compost Happens? Naturally organic waste will undergo decomposition by various types of microbes, animals that live in the soil, enzymes and fungi. This decomposition process requires certain conditions, such as temperature, air and moisture. The more suitable conditions, the faster composting, finished in 4-6 weeks. When organic waste dumped course, new months later into compost. In hot composting process will arise due to microbial activity. This is a sign of microbial organic matter chew and turn it into compost. Optimal temperature composting remedy and should be maintained is 45 ° C - 65 ° C. If it is too hot to be inverted, and at least every 7 days.


Waste Management To Make it Compost

One of the green lifestyle that we can implement is to manage the household organic waste, by making it into compost. Compost is a fertilizer made from organic waste. Manufacture is not too complicated, does not require a broad and does not require a lot of equipment and costs. Only require preliminary preparation, after it when it's routine, do not bother even in addition to reducing waste disposal problems, the resulting compost can be used alone, no need to buy.

  1. Filter organic waste (kitchen waste and yard) and non-organic waste, the largest composition of household waste about 70% actually is organic and can be detained at home, and processed into compost. Types of organic waste that can be processed into compost that is new vegetable garbage leftover vegetable casserole, but it should be washed first, squeeze, then drained the rest of leftover rice fish, chicken, egg shells litter fruit (grapes, orange peel, apple, etc.). In a fragmented state, not including fruit leather skin hard as bark.

  2. Organic waste that can not be processed: protein such as meat, fish, shrimp, too fat, coconut milk, milk (for inviting flies that grow maggots) intact seeds or bark loud as beans, sour, litchi, avocado and the like. Whole fruit is not edible because of foul and watery like papaya, melon, citrus, grapes.

Useful compost to improve soil structure, plant nutrients needed to be available. Microbes in the compost will help the absorption of nutrients that plants need. Land would be more loose. Plants fertilized with compost will grow better. Composting is one of the alternative treatment of organic solid waste (solid organic waste) that can be applied in Indonesia, given the raw materials mainly urban waste (municipal waste) are available in abundance, and appropriate technology for the composting process had been quite mastered.

In terms of environmental interests, composting can reduce the volume of waste being dumped into the final disposal (landfill), because some of them, especially the organic solid waste reused and processed into compost. From an economic standpoint, the composting of organic solid waste means, that the goods which originally had no economic value and even require a significant financial cost to handle and lately often lead to social problems, it can be converted into useful products and promising economic value .

Pengelolaan Sampah Menjadi Pupuk Kompos


Compost Spesification

  • The content Hara

    Good compost containing macro nutrients Nitrogen> 1.5%, P2O5 (Phosphate)> 1% and K20 (Potassium)> 1.5%, in addition to other micro elements. C / N ratio of between 15-20, above or below it poorly. For business purposes, the resulting compost should have stable quality and continuous supply.

    Compost for organic crops, if less haranya elements can be added with other organic materials. Nitrogen can be added to the urine of cattle, fastener microbial nitrogen, organic fertilizers derived from animal sources such as fish, blood, etc. Phosphate can be added from guano fertilizer or rock phosphate, can also be mixed with microbes release phosphate. Potassium can be added from charcoal / ash coconut / palm, former incinerator ash, and others.

    Compost which is not intended for organic crops, apart from the above mixture can also be supplied with a mixture of artificial fertilizers. So, this kind of fertilizer used only for non-organic crops. Because the waste materials are not fixed, the necessary mix with other ingredients that quality is maintained. Quality control should be applied here, so people are buying completely satisfied.


  • Compost Type

    Compost production can be divided into three groups:

    1. Pure Compost. This fertilizer is intended for organic crop land, but also can be used for non-organic agricultural land.

    2. Compost plus microbes (binder N and P release). Enriched fertilizer is also intended to organic farms, but also can be used for non-organic agricultural land (the usual).

    3. Compost plus artificial fertilizers. This fertilizer can only be used for non-organic farms.

Compost when seen from the manufacturing process can be divided into two kinds, namely: naturally processed compost, and compost are processed by human intervention. What is meant by natural composting is composting in the manufacturing process runs by itself, with little or no human intervention. Humans only help collect materials, preparing materials, to further the process of composting / composting runs by itself. Compost is made naturally requires a long time of manufacture, which reached 3-4 months even reached 6 months and more. What is meant by composting with human intervention is composting that since the preparation of material (material procurement and selection of materials), treatment of materials, mixing ingredients, setting the temperature, humidity settings and setting the oxygen concentration, all done under the supervision of a human.

The process of composting is made by human intervention is usually aided by the addition of bio-activators decomposing compost material. There are a variety of compost activator? Of brands and products, but the most important in determining this is not a brand activator aktivatornya, but what is contained in these activators, how long activators have been tested, whether there was an effect of the activator element of the human , to cattle, against the plant or the effect on organisms in the soil or in other words the effect on the environment as it also has to be seen what kind of compost results obtained.

The purpose of composting carefully regulated as already mentioned above is to get the final result of compost so that certain quality standards. Among them are having a value of C / N ratio of between 10-12. Excess of how to compost with human intervention and the use of the activator is accelerated composting process can be 2-4 weeks.

Skema Pembuatan Pupuk Kompos


Method of Composting

There are several methods of composting, namely:

  1. Wind Row system

  2. Aerated Static Pile

  3. In Vessel

All three of these systems have been widely operated extensively. From these three systems which can produce the best compost is not important, because each system has its advantages and disadvantages of each.

  • Wind Row System

    Wind Row System is the process of composting the simplest and least expensive. Compost materials stacked lengthwise, stack height 0.6 to 1 meters, width of 2-5 meters. While it can reach 40-50 meters in length. This system utilizes natural air circulation. Optimizing the width, height and length of his pile greatly influenced by the state of raw materials, moisture, pore space, and air circulation to reach the middle of a pile of raw materials. Ideally is the pile of raw materials should be able to release heat, heat to offset expenses incurred as a result of the decomposition of organic matter by microbes. Windrow system is a good system of composting process that has been successfully carried out in many places for processing manure, garden waste, sewage sludge, municipal waste etc. To regulate the temperature, humidity and oxygen, the windrow systems, the reversal process is carried out periodically This is in principle that distinguishes it from other composting system. The downside of this is Windrow system requires fairly extensive areas of land.

    Wind Row Composting System

  • Aerated Static Pile System

    Other more advanced system is Aerated Static Pile. In principle, the composting process is almost the same, with windrow system, but in this system of perforated pipes installed for air flow. Pressed air blower wear. Because no air circulation, then the piles of raw materials being processed can be higher than 1 meter. The process itself is regulated by the flow of oxygen. If the temperature is too high, the oxygen flow was stopped, while if the temperature drops plus oxygen flow. Because there is no reversal process, the compost material must be made homogeneous since the beginning. In mixing there must be enough air cavity. Raw materials that are too large and the length should be cut reaches the size of 4-10 cm.

    Aerated Static Pile

  • In Vessel System

    The third system is the system In Vessel Composting. In this system can use any container form, can silos or elongated trench. Because this system is limited by the structure of the container, this system both used to reduce the influence of this smell like the smell of municipal solid waste. The system in the vessel also uses the same air as the system settings Aerated Static Pile. This system has a door compost material income and expenditure door compost so different.

    In Vessel Composting System


Composting Standardization

By knowing that the quality of the compost is strongly influenced by processing, while the composting process itself is influenced by moisture and C and N ratio of raw materials, then to determine the standardization of compost is to standardize the process of composting and compost standardization of raw materials, in order to obtain compost have certain standards. After a standard mixture of compost material can be satisfied that the ideal humidity of 50-60 percent and has a ratio of C / N feedstock of 30: 1, there are other things that should be kept during the composting process takes place, which must be carried out surveillance of temperature, humidity , odor or scent, and pH.


Temperature Observations

Temperature is one of the key indicators in composting.

  1. Is the heat rises?

  2. How much temperature heat can be achieved?

  3. In how much heat can be achieved?

  4. How long they may last in high heat?

  5. What is the meaning of these circumstances?

  6. Mixture of ingredients such as what can affect the temperature profile?

The heat generated as a byproduct of the process undertaken by the microbes to break down organic matter. This temperature can be used to measure how well the composting system is working, and also it can be seen the extent of decomposition has been running. As an illustration, if the compost rises to a temperature of 40 ° C - 50 ° C, it can be concluded that the mixture of compost material contains enough material Nitrogen and Carbon and contains enough water (moisture enough) to support the growth of microorganisms. Observations of temperature must be done by using test equipment temperature can reach deep into the compost pile. Wait until some time until a stable temperature.

Then do it again in a different place. Do these observations at several locations, including at various depths of the compost pile. Compost can have pockets of warmer and there are pockets of cool. Everything is very dependent on the moisture content (humidity) and chemical composition of the compost material. It will obtain a map of the temperature gradient. With the temperature graphs and their locations along with time, it can be explained:

  1. How far the process of decomposition is

  2. How well the composition of the raw material mixture

  3. How flat the mixture and where the mixture is not flat

  4. Where section the air circulation is running normally and less normal

From the information above, it can take a decision what steps should be taken to achieve the final result and obtain the desired quality compost. In a good composting process, the temperature of 40 ° C - 50 ° C can be achieved in 2-3 days. Then in the next few days the temperature will increase until the raw material is decomposed by microorganisms exhausted. From there, then the temperature will go down.

From a few times with the system process Windrow composting, using a mixture of compost material consisting of cow dung, chicken manure, goat manure, bran and straw, change the temperature reaches 40 ° C - 50 ° C can be achieved within three (3) days . Therefore reversal compost performed on day 4 (four). After the first reversal temperature will go down, then up again to reach 55 ° C - 60 ° C on day 6. Therefore done again reversal to two on day 6 (six) or 3 days after the first reversal, after the inversion temperature will go down and up again to 55 ° C - 60 ° C on day 9 (nine). On day nine (9) or 3 days after the reversal to be done again two reversals to 3 (three). If the exact composition of the mixture of raw materials, the temperature will be stable until day 12 (twelve) and so on, to then go down and stabilized at a given temperature. On day 14 the compost pile can be opened for further cooled and then filtering and packing.


Humidy Observations

Composting will take place well in a mixed state compost material which has a moisture content of between 40-60 per cent of its weight. At the state level lower water vapor, the activity of microorganisms is inhibited or stopped altogether. At the state level of humidity is higher, then the process is likely to be anaerobic, which will cause a foul odor. When the compost material chosen for then mixed, the moisture content can be measured or estimated. After the composting process takes place, moisture measurement need not be repeated, but can be directly observed the adequacy of the water vapor content. If the composting process is running, and then came the stench, it can be ascertained compost contain excessive moisture. Excess moisture has been filling the pore space, thus blocking the diffusion of oxygen through the material? Compost material. This is what makes the state becomes anaerobic.

Mixing raw materials with pieces 4-10 cm, such as straw material, pieces of wood, cardboard, sawdust etc. can reduce this problem. Where do composting using aerated static pile system or systems in the Vessel, be? Wary of adding air (oxygen), not to cause the compost dry. The indication is to note the temperature, if the temperature decreases more rapidly than normal, it is possible that the compost is too dry.


Odor Observations

If the composting process is running normally, then it should not produce a pungent odor (stench). However in composting will not be free at all of their smell. By utilizing the senses of smell, can be used as a tool to detect problems that occur during the process of composting. As an illustration, if the smell of ammonia, should be assumed mixture of compost excess material containing the element nitrogen (ratio C / N is too low). To overcome add ingredients? Ingredient containing the C / N is high, for example in the form of:

  1. Pieces of straw
  2. Lumber
  3. Sawdust
  4. Pieces of newsprint or cardboard

If the smell and compost mixture may contain too much water. If this happens, do the reversal (in the windrow system), add oxygen to the system Aerated Static Pile or In Vessel.


Ph Obervations

Observations compost pH serves as an indicator of compost decomposition process. Compost microbes will work on state pH neutral to slightly sour, with a pH range between 5.5 to 8. During the initial stages of the decomposition process, will form organic acids. This acidic conditions will encourage the growth of fungus and will decompose lignin and cellulose in the compost. During the ongoing process of composting, organic acids will be neutral and compost to mature normally reach a pH between 6 - 8. If anaerobic conditions develop during the process of composting, organic acids will accumulate.

Provision of air or reversal of compost will reduce this acidity. The addition of lime in the composting process is not recommended. Of lime (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) will lead to a loss of nitrogen that turns into ammonia gas. This loss is not only caused the odor, but also cause losses for causing the loss of important nutrients, namely nitrogen. Nitrogen are certainly better stored in compost to then later used by plants for growth.


Compost Characteristics

After all the process of composting is done, ranging from the selection of materials, procurement of materials, treatment of materials, preparation of materials, mixing ingredients, the observation process, the reversal of the finished compost to compost. Next is a simple test to compost.

  1. Is the compost well ready?

  2. What are their characteristics?

The characteristics of the finished compost and both are:

  • Compost usually blackish brown color

  • Good compost does not emit a pungent aroma, but issued a weak scent like the smell of soil or forest humus smell and clenched When held, the compost will clot. When pressed with soft, clumps of compost will be destroyed easily.

Pupuk Kompos Hitam


Compost Storage

Compost when it is finished, it should be stored up to 1 or 2 months to reduce toxic elements, although this storage will lead to a slight loss of the necessary elements such as nitrogen. But in general, the compost is stored in advance the better. Compost storage must be done with care? Heart, especially to be guarded is:

  1. Keep the humidity should not be <20 per cent of its weight

  2. Take care not to direct sunlight (closed)

  3. Take care not to hit the water / rain directly (closed)

If it will be packed, select airtight packaging material and not easily damaged. Packaging materials opaque sun better. Compost is a material which, if changed, can not be returned to its original state (irreversible). If the compost dries, nutrients contained therein will also disappear along with the water and when water is added compost back then lost nutrients was not able to return again. Likewise, the influence of rain water. If compost rain, nutrients will dissolve and brought rain. Should compostable packaging material is impermeable to prevent loss of water content. Good packaging makes Compost can last for more than 3 years.


Advantages and Disadvantages of Compost

Organic fertilizers have very many weaknesses, but also has its drawbacks when compared with artificial fertilizers or chemistry (inorganic).

Disadvantages

Small amounts of the nutrient content, so that the amount of fertilizer applied must be relatively large when compared with inorganic fertilizer. Because polynomial, causing require additional operational costs for transport and implementation. In the short term, especially for the land? Already poor soil nutrients, organic fertilizer that requires a large amount so that it becomes the burden of costs for farmers. While the reaction or response of plants to organic fertilizer not se? Spectacular artificial fertilizer application.

Advantages

Organic fertilizers contain all the nutrients needed, both macro nutrients and micro nutrients. This condition is not owned by artificial fertilizers (inorganic). Organic fertilizers contain organic acids, such as humic acid, fulfic acids, hormones and enzymes that are not contained in artificial fertilizers are very useful both for the plant and the environment and microorganisms. Organic fertilizers containing macro and micro-organisms that have a land very good influence on the improvement of soil physical properties and especially the biological properties of the soil.

  1. Improve and maintain soil structure

  2. Soil pH buffer

  3. Being buffer inorganic nutrients supplied

  4. Helps maintain soil moisture

  5. Aman dipakai dalam jumlah besar dan berlebih sekalipun

  6. Do not damage the environment

 

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