Understanding Broadcast & Multimedia

Multimedia BroadcastingMultimedia is a combination of several elements of text, graphics, sound, video and animation that produces stunning presentations. Here can be described that multimedia is a combination of data or media to convey information so that the information was presented with more interesting.

Multimedia elements, namely text, graphic or image, sound, video and animation

The text is a combination of letters that make up a paragraph or words that describe or discuss a topic and this topic is known as information subtitles. Text can be presented with various forms of models and font size or font.

Graphic or picture is "a ruler, circles, boxes, shadow, color and so are fostered by using a paint program". by Agnew and Kellerman (1996). With the delivery of an information graphics will be more interesting and effective, the graph is a formulation intimation in visual form.

Sound is any sound in digital form such as music, narration and so on Sound itself also increase leverage and traction, with additional sound processed and additional sound effects generator, the sound produced will be shown with so enchanting and mesmerizing his audience.

Video is "digital media showing the arrangement or sequence of images and gives the illusion, illustration and fantasy to the moving image". According to Agnew and Kellerman (1996). Videos provide an information distribution kaedah exciting and live. Video is a media source or the most dynamic and effective in conveying the information.

Animation is "exposure sequences each of which there is little difference to generate a movement in the quest" according to Simon 1995: 134. The animation is very interesting to eliminate monotonous boredom.

Understanding Resolution and Frame

Resolution is the number of pixels or picture elements are arranged in a digital image. The resolution is determined by the amount and collection of pixels that make up images. Quantity dot or point in the image plane will determine the quality of the image.

The frame is the smallest unit in the video. In the program Flash, frames rather like HVS that have been drawn, and an example when we extend the frame as much as 5 frames, it is rather like 5 HVS with the same image, if we change the picture one frame, then the other frames will follow the changes in the image that, because the frame can not stand alone.


Frame Rate


Broadcast is a process of sending signals to various locations simultaneously either through satellite, radio, television, communication of data on the network, etc., and can also be defined as a server to client service that disseminates data to multiple clients at the same time a parallel manner with access fast enough from the source video or audio.

Broadcast Standardization

  • PAL
  • NTSC

Broadcast Type Map


PAL is a color encoding used in broadcast television. PAL stands for "Phose Alternating Line" is used for phase alternation line. PAL consists of 625 lines and is shown at 25 frames in each second (fps). This system is used in most countries around the world except in America, because in America uses NTSC system. PAL Broadcast System was developed in Germany by Walter Bruch, in 1967. PAL including both standard in broadcast television systems.

PAL Types:

  • PAL B/G/D/K/I

    Generally use the PAL television standard of 625 lines and 25 fps. Countries that use the PAL B / G almost all countries in Western Europe, PAL I used in the UK, Ireland, Hong Kong, etc. For PAL D / K used in Southern European countries, and to a standard PAL D specifically used by the Chinese. PAL B / G / D / C / I using the modulation frequency and modulation video transmitted using negative modulation AM for voice information. Indonesia uses PAL B which allocates require wide bandwidth of 7 MHz.

  • PALM (Standard Brasil TV)

    PAL is used in the country of Brazil using 525 lines and 29.97 fps. Almost all countries that use the PAL M as well as using NTSC. And most of the countries that use the PAL NTSC M tend to use because judging from PAL to NTSC M together. PAL M for voice information using frequency modulation and modulation video to be transmitted using a negative modulation AM.

  • PAL Nc (Standard Argentine TV)

    Nc PAL (PAL combining N), for the country of Argentina uses 625 lines per 50 Hertz. PAL Nc for voice information using frequency modulation and modulation video to be transmitted using a negative modulation Ampal N (Standard television Uruguay)

  • PAL N (PAL combining N)

    Uruguay state uses 625 lines per 50 Hertz. In a country of Uruguay normally uses also PAL DVD that television using a DVD directly in the broadcast. PAL N for voice information using frequency modulation and modulation video to be transmitted using a negative modulation AM.

  • PAL L

    PAL L for voice information using frequency modulation and modulation video to be transmitted using positive modulation AM. Use of PAL L is similar to using a standard SECAM television that uses 625 lines / 50Hertz and 15,625 kHz using the line speed. L PAL television use is not to be used for national television but television network in the hotel.

NTSC (National Television Systems Committee) is the standard for the transmission of analogue television in the United States and several countries in the world, including several countries, including American Samoa, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, British Virgin Islands, Canada, Cayman Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Diego Garcia, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Japan, Leeward Islands, Marshall Islands , Mexico, Micronesia, Midway Atoll, Montserrat, Myanmar, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Samoa, South Korea, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Taiwan , Trinidad and Tobago, the US Virgin Islands, and Venezuela.

NTSC was built in 1953 by the National Television Systems Committee. NTSC video standard defines which provides 482 lines of vertical resolution and 16 million colors. Transmit NTSC 525 lines, but some lines are used for sync, vertical retrace, and closed captioning.

Unlike the case with PAL, NTSC divide 25 lines per frame and 30 frames in one second or 29.97 frames per second (fps). NTSC do so by providing a half-interlaced 59.94 frames / sec.


DVD is a type of optical disc that can be used to store data, including movies with video and audio quality better than VCD quality. "DVD" was originally stands for digital video discs, but some people want that stands for Digital Versatile Disc renamed (digital versatile disc) to make it clear that this format is not just for video only.

HD DVD (abbreviation of High-Definition DVD) is a high-density optical disc format designed to store data including high definition video. HD-DVD is one of the competitive HD disc formats. HD-DVD is closer to the Blu-ray rather than standard DVD. They both use a shorter wavelength optical (DVD), and based AVC / MPEG4 codec. While DVD uses a red laser, with the MPEG2 codec.

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