How Aircraft Mechanisms Work

Pesawat Terbang Tipe Airbus A350Aircraft is an aircraft that is heavier than air, fixed wing, and can fly with his own power.

In general, the term is often also referred aircraft by airplane or airplane or simply plane with same purpose as a vehicle capable of flying in the atmosphere or air.

But in the world of aviation, terms of different aircraft with aircraft, aircraft term is much broader sense because it already includes airplanes and helicopters.


History

Aircraft heavier than air was first flown by the Wright Brothers (Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright) by using its own aircraft design called the Flyer, which was launched in 1903 in the United States.

In addition to the Wright brothers, inventors listed several other aircraft that invented the airplane, among others, Samuel F Cody who commit crimes in the field Fanborough, England in 1910. After days of Wright, aircraft undergone many modifications both in design, shape and aircraft engines to meet the needs of air transport.

Work Principles

The basic principle of how aircraft to land the same for all aircraft, aircraft both dragonflies and super jumbo aircraft such as the Airbus A380.

Affecting aircraft is flying fatherly aerodynamic forces that hits namely, lift (elevator), drag (drag), gravity (gravity), and the thrust.

Gaya Dorong Pesawat

 

The driving force obtained from the next plane propeller rotating at the end of the plane (see figure). While the friction drag is an aircraft with the wind. Because aircraft have mass, then the force of gravity will bring the plane down, for that lift is required. Lift is produced from an aircraft wing.

Aircraft wing is a key player for mengkat airframe. Wing cross section is usually called "airfoil" During the flight the air flow up and down the wing. Air flowing over the wing faster than the air flowing under the wing, so the air pressure above the lower plane.

At the same time the air below the wing have been turned down, resulting in a lift (air is pushed down will encourage keatas- wing style action and reaction).

Gaya Aksi-Reaksi Pesawat

 

The driving force of the wing and low air pressure above the wing is what is needed for the aircraft in the air.

There are several factors that cause the aircraft to fly, including:

An aircraft require lift or elevator is needed to fly. The lift generated by the surface of a wing (wing) in the form of an airfoil.

Airfoil cross-section shape on an airplane wing:

Airfoil Pesawat Terbang

 

Lift is created due to the air passing over the top and the bottom around the airfoil. When flying, the air passing over the top of the airfoil will have a speed greater than the speed of air flow through the bottom of the airfoil. Then, on the lower surface of the airfoil will have a greater pressure than the surface above. The difference in pressure at the top and bottom is what causes the lift or lift on the wing. Hence the pressure to move from a large pressure area leading to a small pressure area, the pressure at the bottom of the airfoil will move towards the top of the airfoil so as to create the lift force on the wing. Lifting force that makes the aircraft can fly and float freely in the air.


Power Plant

To move forward (both on land and in the air), the aircraft requires the thrust generated by the propulsion or commonly called by the engine (engine). Will thrust generated by the engine thrust is commonly referred to.

There are several types of aircraft engines, including:

  • Piston Engine
  • Turbojet Engine
  • Turboporop Engine
  • Turbofan Engine
  • Turboshaft Engine


Piston Engine

Piston engine or commonly called the piston engine, an engine that uses a piston (piston) as the driving force. Piston that moves up and down in connecting with the crankshaft via the connecting rod to rotate the propeller or propellers. Piston can move up and down due to the combustion of the fuel-air mixture (fuel) in the combustion chamber (combustion chamber). Combustion in the combustion chamber produces hot gas expansion which can drive the piston moves up and down.

Aircraft piston engines generally use a propeller as the driving force to generate thrust. Cross-sectional shape of the propeller itself as the wings, which are also shaped airfoil. So that when the propeller rotates it will generate thrust or thrust so that the aircraft can move forward. Aircraft with piston engine is a type of light aircraft or commonly called the light aircraft. This aircraft has a cruising range that is small and the flying height is not too high.

Piston Mesin Pesawat Terbang

 

Turbojet Engine

Basically, the working principle of all aircraft engines alike. Ie utilizing the combustion energy of the fuel to air mixture that produces gas expansion which occurs in the combustion chamber cc (combustion chamber). Named turbojet engine because this engine uses a turbine to generate power, and that means bursts jet / jet. That blast of combustion products in the cc out towards the turbine and rotate the turbine, compressor and turbine rotate and move the other engine components.

Turbojet Engine

 

Turboprop Engine

The working principle of equal Turboprop engine with the working process of the turbojet engine. What distinguishes it is contained in the engine's propeller. Propeller turbine and compressor connected with through shaft.

 Turboprop Engine

 

Turbofan Engine

Same with turboprop, turbofan working principle the same as the turbojet engine. The difference is in the turbofan engine there is a fan in front of the compressor. Fan function to suck air into the compressor.

 Turbofan Engine

 

Turboshaft Engine

The working principle of turboshaft engines are also similar to the turbojet engine. Engine is in use on helicopters. In turboshaft engines, which are connected to the turbine shaft. This shaft connects to the main rotor or propeller on a helicopter. Rotor on a helicopter having an airfoil-shaped cross section.

 Turboshaft Engine

 

Full Field of Flight Control Surface

To move the plane (turn, dip, and rolling or turning), a pilot requires a control surface or control surface.

Primary control surface or the main control field is the field of control of the aircraft that can regulate the movement of aircraft while flying in the air.

Aileron, elevator, and rudder is the primary control surface on the aircraft.

1). Aileron is located on the wing, aircraft used during rolling (turning) in the air and movements are on the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, the ailerons are controlled by using the control stick is in the cockpit.

Aileron Pesawat Terbang

2). Elevators are located at the tail (empennage) or horizontal stabilizer parts, used aircraft to perform piching (nod) and aircraft movements on the lateral axis, elevators controlled by using the control stick is in the cockpit room.

Elevator Pesawat Terbang

3). The rudder is located in the tail precisely on the vertical stabilizer, used to perform yawing plane (turn) the air and aircraft movements on the vertical axis, rudder controlled by using the rudder pedals located in the cockpit space.

 Rudder Pesawat Terbang

 

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